b. Environmental observations are the foundation for understanding the climate system. From the bottom of the ocean to the surface of the Sun, instruments on weather stations, buoys, satellites, and other platforms collect climate data. To learn about past climates, scientists use natural records, such as tree rings, ice cores, and sedimentary layers. Historical observations, such as native knowledge and personal journals, also document past climate change.

Students observe, sketch, and describe clouds on their own before learning to identify cloud types by comparing photos of different clouds to their sketches.

Students observe cloud type and coverage, as well as other weather conditions over a five-day period and correlate these observations. Students make and test predictions using these observations.

Students will work with short-term and long-term air temperature data in order to better understand the differences between weather and climate.

An interactive data visualization map of the USGS data of water usage from 2015 of the USA and US territories.

This resource is part of a collection of visualizations that illustrate observed changes in temperature, precipitation, storms, floods, and droughts. This resource focuses on US and Global temperature. Rising global average temperature is associated with widespread changes in weather patterns. Scientific studies indicate that extreme weather events such as heat waves and large storms are likely to become more frequent or more intense with human-induced climate change.

This series of visualizations is part of a rich multi-agency effort to showcase the usefulness of open data (i.e., data provided in a discoverable, sharable, and machine-readable format) by exploring the 16-year drought as of 2016 and its effects on the Colorado River Basin.

This is a ten-question quiz of basic to intermediate information about global climate change.

Using US Drought Monitor data and its classification system, this interactive tool tracks drought in the continental US by county, from 2000 to the present.

This video and accompanying article describe the work of 2 scientists on Greenland's Petermann Glacier, who are attempting to collect data from beneath the glacier to determine if the temperature of the ocean water under the glacier is playing a role in the glacier's rapid retreat.

This visualization shows static and animated images of changes in Arctic sea ice 1984-2016.